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Philosophy: An Introduction Through Literature

Philosophy: An Introduction Through Literature
ISBN
1557785392
Weight
3.00 lbs
Cover
Paper

Pages
618

Size
6x9

Date Available
1999/11/30


Notes
Price:
$29.95 (22.46)
Qty
"Must Read!"
Today's Books, Abstract & Index, May 12, 2003

Philosophy and literature are natural allies--
philosophy supplying perennial themes raised anew from one generation to the next, literature providing vivid illustrations of the meaning and poignancy of abstract thought.

Illuminates basic philosophical concepts through literary works
This unique text introduces students to philosophy through the medium of great literature. The book is divided into seven parts, each devoted to the illumination of a basic philosophical concept-such as Knowledge, Truth, Personal Identity, Ethics, and justice through the use of literary selections from Sophocles (Oedipus the King), James Joyce (Araby), Kafka (The Metamorphosis), and John Dos Passos (The House of Morgan), among many others. The editors have given special attention to choosing the right combination of literary piece and philosophical issue to ensure that the story or play lend itself to philosophical scrutiny.

Selections of the best philosophical writings
The questions raised by these selections are then explored further through some of the best philosophical writings available, including the writings of Aristotle, William James, Plato, Locke, John Stuart. Mill, and many other classic philosophers, as well as contemporary pieces from Richard Rorty, Peter Unger, John Rawls, John Hick, and others. In each chapter, the editors have attempted to include the clearest presentation of a particular point of view, sometimes going back to an earlier article not generally found in other current texts. Throughout, they have made an effort to balance the analytic tradition with hermeneutics and feminist philosophy.

Excellent introduction for students
Every chapter is introduced with an essay by the editors that provides a unifying thread through the various philosophical and literary pieces that follow. Each chapter ends with discussion questions and suggestions for further study. The result is a volume that will provide students with a valuable tool for illuminating timeless, as well as contemporary issues, and an introduction to philosophy that they will remember and to which they can return over and over again.

CONTENTS
Preface xiii

PART 1
KNOWLEDGE

Literary Introduction: What Do We Know? 3
JAMES JOYCE
Araby 6
Philosophical Discussion: What Is Knowledge? 10
PLATO
Knowledge as Justified True Belief 17
EDMUND L. GETTIER
Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? 25
RENE DESCARTES
Meditations on First Philosophy 29
PETER UNGER
A Defense of Skepticism 62
RICHARD RORTY
Philosophy Without Mirrors 75
Discussion Questions/Suggestions for Further Study 79

PART 2
TRUTH

Literary Introduction: What Is the Truth? 83
RYUNOSUKE AKUTAGAWA
In a Grove 85
Philosophical Discussion: What Is Truth? 91
ARISTOTLE
from Metaphysics 97
J. L. AUSTIN
Truth 102
BRAND BLANSHARD
The Nature of Truth 110
CHARLES SANDERS PEIRCE
Truth 115
GILBERT HARMAN
Inference to the Best Explanation 121
DAVID INGRAM
Hermeneutics and Truth 126
Discussion Questions/Suggestions for Further Study 140

PART 3
PERSONAL IDENTITY

Literary Introduction: Is This The Same Individual? 143
FRANZ KAFKA
The Metamorphosis 147
Philosophical Discussion: What Is a Person? 175
PLATO
from Phaedo 181
GILBERT RYLE
Descartes' Myth 185
JOHN LOCKE
The Prince and the Cobbler 193
DAVID HUME
Of Personal Identity 196
ANTHONY QUINTON
The Soul . 202
E. VICTORIA SPELMAN
Woman as Body 213
SAUL KRIPKE
from Naming and Necessity 222
EDDY M. ZEMACH
Looking Out for Number One 224
Discussion Questions/Suggestions for Further Study 242

PART 4
ETHICS

Literary Introduction: What To Do? 247
FRANK O'CONNOR
Guests of the Nation 250
Philosophical Discussion: What is the Difference Between
Right and Wrong? 258
ROBERT C. MORTIMER
Moral Authority 267
BRIAN MEDLIN
Ultimate Principles and Ethical Egoism 275
JOHN STUART MILL
Utilitarianism 280
IMMANUEL KANT
Passage from Ordinary Rational Knowledge of Morality
to Philosophical 294
A. J. AYER
Critique of Ethics and Theology 305
GILBERT HARMAN
Ethics and Observation 312
LOWELL KLEIMAN
Morality as the Best Explanation 317
BRUCE BROWER
Virtue Concepts and Ethical Realism 325
KURT BALER
Why Should We Be Moral? 337
Discussion Questions/Suggestions for Further Study 345

PART 5
JUSTICE

Literary Introduction: What Is Just? 349
STEPHEN CRANE
An Experiment in Misery 353
JOHN DOS PASSOS
The House of Morgan 359
Philosophical Discussion: What Is Justice? 363
PLATO
from The Republic 373
JOHN STUART MILL
On the Connection Between Justice and Utility 384
JOHN RAWLS
from A Theory of Justice 398
J. J. C. SMART
Distributive Justice and Utilitarianism 411
MILTON FISK
Economic Justice 416
Discussion Questions/Suggestions for Further Study 423

PART 6
RELIGIOUS BELIEF

Literary Introduction: Why Is There Evil? 427
MARK TWAIN
from Little Bessie 429
from the Book of Job 433
Philosophical Discussion: Does God Exist? 442
J. L. MACKIE
Evil and Omnipotence 450
JOHN H. HICK
The Problem of Evil 456
YAAKOV D. HOMNICK and SIDNEY HOOK
On God and the Holocaust 462
WILLIAM JAMES
from The Varities of Religious Experience 468
SAINT ANSELM and GAUNILON
A Dialogue on the Ontological Proof for the Existence 484
of God
NORMAN MALCOLM
Anselm's Ontological Arguments 487
SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS
The Existence of God 499
SAMUEL CLARKE
A Modern Formulation of the Cosmological Argument 501
WILLIAM PALEY
The Argument from Design 502
DAVID HUME
Reply to the Argument from Design 504
BERTRAND RUSSELL
What Is an Agnostic? 511
Discussion Questions/Suggestions for Further Study 514

PART 7
FREEDOM, FATALISM, AND DETERMINISM

Literary Introduction: What Will Be, Will Be. 519
SOPHOCLES
Oedipus the King 521
Philosophical Discussion: Can We Be Fated,
Determined, and Free? 553
ARISTOTLE
The Sea Battle 560
GILBERT RYLE It Was To Be 562
RICHARD TAYLOR
Fate 574
BARON d'HOLBACH
Are We Cogs in the Universe 580
WILLIAM JAMES
The Dilemma of Determinism 581
MORITZ SCHLICK
The Free Will-Determinism Issue is a Pseudoproblem 591
C. A. CAMPBELL
Is “Free Will” a Pseudoproblem? 597
JOHN HOSPERS
Meaning and Free Will 604
B. F. SKINNER
Freedom and the Control of Men 611
J. L. AUSTIN
from Ifs and Cans 615
Discussion Questions/Suggestions for Further Study 617

LOWELL KLEIMAN is a professor of philosophy at Suffolk County Community College in New York and executive editor of the Journal of Critical Analysis. Recent publications include Ethics and Science, in Ethics for Today and Tomorrow, edited by Joram Graf Habor (Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1997) and co-author of Ethical Issues in Scientific Research (Garland Publishing, 1994).

STEPHEN LEWIS is a professor of English at Suffolk County Community College.

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